India: From Moghuls to Independence
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Thursday, January 07, 2010
India: From Moghuls to Independence (42:00)
This program covers the history of India from the time of Genghis Khans first extension of his domain beyond China. It explains the roles of Tamerlane and his descendant Babur and shows the crucial Battle of Panipat between Babur and the forces of Ibrahim Lodi, the Afghan Sultan of Delhi. There would be many more battles (including a second battle of Panipat) before the Afghans were beaten, but Babur had established Mongol hegemony over a vast territory. The program traces the subsequent history of India: the exploits of his son Humayun and his grandson, Akbar; the arrival of Europeans; the flowering of Moghul culture epitomized by the Taj Mahal, and the decline; its submission to the British Empire and its reawakening at independence. (42 minutes)
Tamerlane was 14th-century conqueror of much of western and central Asia, and or Pirnazar founder of the Timurid Empire and Timurid dynasty (1370–1405) in Central Asia, which survived until 1857 as the Moghul Empire of India.
Babur was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Moghul dynasty of India.
Lords and Princes (02:12)
In 16th century India, lords and princes lead lives of opulence. The Sultan of Delhi marches to meet Barbur who is invading India.
Battle of Panipat (02:09)
Military accoutrement and elephants are discussed. Highlights of the crucial Battle of Panipat between Babur and the forces of Ibrahim Lodi, the Afghan Sultan of Delhi
Humayun was the second Mughal Emperor who ruled modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1530–1540
The Rajputs (from the Sanskrit tatpurusha compound rajaputra, "son of a king") are a martial race and the ruling class of northern India.
Akbar: Age of the Great Moghuls (02:44)
Akbar's reign significantly influenced art and culture in the region. Akbar took a great interest in painting, and had the walls of his palaces adorned with murals.
Hinduism and Islam (01:10)
In the 16th century, eighty percent of the population of India was Hindu, a native religion 3,000 years old. Islam was an imported monotheistic religion.
Akbar's son Jahangir becomes ruler. He is an opium addict and has the eyes put out of all who question him. Still, he wants to be viewed as a just king. A relationship between Jahangir and Europe develops.
Origin of the Taj Mahal (05:12)
In 1631, Shah Jahan, emperor during the Mughal empire's period of greatest prosperity, was grief stricken when his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal, died during the birth of their fourteenth child, Gauhara Begum.
Taj Majal (01:49)
The Taj Mahal is considered the finest example of Moghul architecture, a style that combines elements from Persian, Indian, and Islamic architectural styles.
Nader Shah (04:24)
Nader Shah was the founder of the Afsharid Dynasty of Persia, lasting from 1736 to 1747.